Monday, 21 December 2015

Marudhar Arts Presents The Most Prestigious Event... NNE 7 - National Numismatic Exhibition 7, 2016

Every year Marudhar Arts conducts an annual extravaganza of coinages (NNE 7 - National Numismatic Exhibition 7, 2016) during the last week of February, where they allow dealers to network with the general public fraternity by establishing a universal platform allowing the procurers to view these cherished and opulent treasures of the legacy.

22 Dec, 2015... Bangalore, INDIA – Marudhar Arts ( is one of India’s largest numismatic and auction house. Pretty impressive for a company born in 1966, based in Bangalore – The IT Hub of the city, it specializes in Vintage Indian coins from the erstwhile dynasties that have ruled, British India coins, World Coins, Western art, vintage comic books /comic art, jewellery, watches, rare books/manuscripts, War memorabilia and much more.

Marudhar Arts is the first company In South India to be bestowed with Antique License No 1 by the Prestigious Archaeological Survey of India. This was only the beginning for the series of achievements that followed.

As everyone always needed a platform, a universal dais where they could interact with people, let all dealers interact with each other on a stage where they can unearth the treasures of the past and ponder over them. More than a fiscal proposition, Marudhar Arts as one of the most revered auction houses in the country feel that it is high time that the changes pre conceived notion that past and history can be a very mundane subject.

Marudhar Arts has conducted Six National Numismatic Exhibitions till now most of them in Bangalore, where their head office is registered... Mr. Rajendra Maru, CEO of Marudhar Arts and the author of South Asian Coins and Paper Money which is the best encyclopaedia of coins and notes of India says “each time we have met with stupendous and overwhelming response, Each time the reaction has transcended and surpassed the last exhibition which makes us believe that the grander and better the fair, the more people shall throng the venue.”

NNE 7 - National Numismatic Exhibition 7, 2016 is conducted at The Bell Hotel, Bangalore, India... A Three Star Property where other dealers have stalls and kiosks put up for the perusal of the general public and the entry being free is the icing on the cake. It is our endeavour to make the next event a bigger success than the preceding one.


Marudhar Arts have always had Renowned and Famous personalities who have graced the occasion with their presence. Eminent Dignitaries including Mr. Jon Lingen (Chairman of the Oriental Numismatic Society, London and Mr. Rezwan Razack (Chairman of the Prestige group) were present to inaugurate the Exhibition. Marudhar Arts have planned to invite more Significant personalities who can endorse and illuminate the general fraternity the importance of numismatics thereby promoting it.

It is an endeavour to bolster and publicize the interest of the public towards coinages because of the strong feeling that there is no better way to study the past than history and one can do so by scrutinizing various commodities of the past and that is where we step in...To give you an unbiased view of genuine antique merchandise with true legacies and origins and help you procure them at unmatched prices with the assurance of Marudhar Arts.

It has always been more than a monetary proposition to conduct this exhibition and it is not obligatory for a visitor to procure something from the numerous stalls. The Real reason behind this colossal exhibition is that they want the public to have a look at these treasures of the yore and apprise themselves at how our ancestors dealt.

There are a myriad of things one can learn when one places a coin/artefact in ones palm/hands. The texture, the manuscript, the vintage, the mint, the condition...These are endless characteristics of a coin...It’s just have to induce people and invite them to glance at the coins.

Media Contact

Marudhar Arts
114,1st Floor, 120, Pamadi Chambers, D. V. G. Road, Basavangudi (Gandhi Bazar)
Bangalore 560 004

Wednesday, 16 December 2015

NNE 7 - National Numismatic Exhibition 7, 2016

NNE 7 - National Numismatic Exhibition 7, 2016

India's Largest Numismatic Fair and Expo. National Numismatic Exhibition is a 3 day event being held from 26th February to the 28th February 2016 at the THE BELL HOTEL & CONVENTION CENTRE in Bangalore, India. This event showcases products like coins, bank notes, stamps, artifacts, accessories, India coins, kingdom coins, colony coins, medallions, token & seals, error notes & coins etc etc. in the Antiques & Philately industry.

On 26th, 27th and 28th Feb 2016.
The Bell Hotel, Bangalore.
No 88, Adjacent to City Railway Station
Majestic, Bangalore - 560023
For STALL Booking and enquiries,
Please Contact Us At : +91-80-6532 9800, +91 99800 20666

Marudhar Arts Coins e-Auction-30 is live! Bid Now!

Marudhar Arts Coins e-Auction-30 is live! Bid Now! 

Marudhar Arts ( e-Auction # 30 is uploaded and LIVE on .... ready to accept your bids.... Closes on 24th and 25th December.

Please visit and bid on a vast array of lots which are ranging from Coinages of Ancient India Coins, Hindu Medieval Coins, Sultanate Coins, Mughal India Coins and Rare Autographs of Amazing Personalities from across the globe. Apart from that we have bifurcated the coins into different categories for the ease of your perusal and interests.

Please feel free to Contact us for any QUERIES/BIDDING at your convenient time at OR Call US on 080-6532-9800 in Business Hours...Monday to Saturday (10 am to 6 pm)…

We wish you a pleasant shopping experience ahead...

Thanks & Regards,

Show Room & Admin Office

Marudhar Arts,
85, M.G. Road ,
Next to Barton Center (Parking Building),
100 Meter from Metro Station toward Anil Kumble Circle,
Bangalore 560 001 (INDIA).

​Registered Office

Marudhar Arts,
1st Floor,Pamadi Chambers,
120, Dr. D. V. G. Road,
Basavangudi (Gandhi Bazar),
Bangalore 560 004 (INDIA).

Wednesday, 2 December 2015

Know More About Coin Collection and Why It is Vital

Have you ever collected coins or any other item? Do you do it for the money or for the joy of it?

For many people coin collecting may seem like a boring and useless hobby. The kind of thing that reminds you of your elders, who had an attic or basement full of various hobby items that were off-limits. I can’t really blame you if you do take that view toward coins or collectors, but I respectfully disagree. I actually used to think like that, but over a period of time, I found many reasons to come to like and respect this dying labor of love. There is nothing wrong with collecting coins, and pursuing your hobbies in general, as long as you are passionate about it and have a hobby on a budget.

You Can Make Money

Believe it or not, collecting coins can be profitable. Not only do many coins gain value, but if you decide that collecting is not for you after trying it, you will likely get all of your investment back, a rare occurrence when it comes to most investments. Prices of some coins will fluctuate with metal prices. Fortunately, those metal prices (especially in a shaky economy like this), tend to rise regularly.

You may be looking for the most hard-to-find coins on the market. These will cost more, but the rarity of coins is often one of their best selling points. If you are lucky enough to stumble upon a hidden treasure, the rarity of certain coins could be enough to set you for lifetime. In addition to the rarity attribute, beauty and design are also two very sought-after attributes in coin collecting. Some collectors classify beauty as lustre and flawlessness, while others seek out coins for their layout or artwork. I have always enjoyed the look of the bay bridge, and with the polar bear on the front, this is easily the best looking coin I have ever seen.

Craze And Challenge Of Finding Perfect

Some collectors just value the challenge of finding that “perfect” coin. With an unlimited budget, nearly any coin can be purchased. It is finding that coin at a steal that is the real challenge for collectors. In addition to the challenge of finding just the right coin, many collectors are modern-day treasure hunters. Just imagine walking in the beach with your metal detector in hand, and stumbling upon a horde of coins worth thousands or even more. It is an extremely long shot, but still worth dreaming about.

Educational View

You perhaps would not even realize it until fully immersed in coin collecting, but a lot can be learned from coin collection. Studying coins and their backgrounds can lead to interesting discoveries and facts about history, politics, society, and culture. Take, for example, the recent issuance of the State quarters and Presidential dollar coin programs. There is plenty to be learned just from these two recent coin series.

Metal Content

Since gold and silver are ever-increasing in value due to limited worldwide supply, many collectors search for coins to add to their collection with only this consideration in mind. Much to the surprise of many, there are valuable coins that likely pass through your fingers quite regularly. Did you know that many Indian coins minted before 1965 had 90% gold and silver content? Not many people realize it, and even fewer are wise enough to hold on to these coins when they have the opportunity. Also, the heavier coins are worth even more, so be on the lookout for these so you can start your collection.

Pass On To Your  Kids (New Generation)

If you want to really face reality, paper and coin money may not even exist when your young ones reach their own adulthood. With this in mind, many parents are happy to purchase brand new coins directly from the bank or mint in hopes of an increase in value that their children and future generations can benefit from. Do not think for a second that these coins will not increase in value over time. Even though we do not use as many precious metals to produce coins as we used to, condition of coins is also a big contributing factor to its value. It may not make them millionaires, but it could prove to be a worthwhile investment for your children for a relatively small initial investment.

There is something so peaceful about rifling through coin collection, taking inventory, or looking for one specific piece. Hobbies are very important both for stress relief and just to get away from everything and enter your own little world, if only temporarily.

Coin collectors have been around since before the Roman Empire, and do not look to be dying off in the near future. Whether you think it is an absolute bore, or a potential endeavor to undertake, you cannot deny that these reasons are appealing. You may well have a completely different reason for beginning a collection. Whatever the case, give it a shot. It’s not like you have much to lose.

Marudhar Arts buy, sell & Auction of Coins, Watches, Stamps, Bank Notes, Paintings, Antique Jewelry, Medals, Picture Post Card, and Autograph of renowned personalities.

Thursday, 2 July 2015

Presidency Coins – Bengal Presidency

                Marudhar Arts

The East India Company established its first factory in the Bengal region in 1633. Several factories were established in Orissa, Bengal and Bihar, and initially they were all administered from Madras. 

In 1698, the Company received rights over Calcutta, a fort was constructed there (Fort William), and in 1715 the Bengal Presidency was created. In 1756, contrary to the instructions of the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, the Company engaged in a major fortification of the Fort and eventually the Nawab laid siege to it and captured it. 

This was the time when the infamous "Black Hole of Calcutta" incident took place. After the Bengal forces captured the fort, some of the captured prisoners escaped, and the officer in charge placed the remaining 146 prisoners in a small 14 x 18 foot room overnight. A significant number perished (the number is not known exactly) from the heat, lack of water and from being trampled in the overcrowded conditions. 

The Company sent reinforcements commanded by Robert Clive, who recaptured the Fort in January 1757. As part of the peace treaty signed after this event, the Company secured from the Nawab the right to strike coins at their own mint in the style of the local issues from Murshidabad.Coinage began in June 1757 and, within a couple of weeks, the Battle of Plassey marked the beginning of the creation of the British Empire in India. After this battle, the Company acquired property rights over a large part of Bengal and a few years later, in 1764, after the Battle of Buxar, expanded their territory to include much of Bihar and Orissa and even parts of modern Uttar Pradesh. 

The basis for the Raj was firmly in place.The East India Company acquired the mint at Banaras from the Raja of Awadh in 1776, soon after the Battle of Buxar. The coins they issued from this mint showed a double regal year, the fixed RY 17 (the RY of the first British issues) and then the progressive RY until the death of Shah Alam II in his RY 49. Both Pridmore and KM list only the AH date 1197 on coins bearing the RY date of 25. This coin, however, bears the RY 25 along with an AH date of 1198. In the listings of these coins, Some renowned numismatists and connoisseurs raise a question mark on the mintmarks, indicating that they was not able to determine the mintmarks on the RY 27, AH 1200 coins.

This coin shows the mintmarks clearly, and, in particular, shows that the normal leaf sprig on the obverse is replaced by a five dot mintmark. Further, the cross that had been appearing under the fish on the coins of the previous few years has disappeared here.Shah Alam lost Bengal to the East India Company in 1765 and so issues after that time are British issues. This coin carries a star mintmark on the obverse (more or less in the center).

The later coins from Murshidabad replaced the star mintmark on the obverse with a crescent. This coin seems to be an error coin or a mule. Shah Alarm’s regal year 11 spanned AH 1183-1184 and records RY 11 coins with these two AH date. But this coin has an AH date of 1185! Since AH 1185 was already in Shah Alam's RY 12, this is clearly an error coin or a mule.

Although the mint name on this coin is Murshidabad, it is actually a Calcutta issue. A new mint was opened there in 1790, where machine struck coins like this one were issued. The lack of any privy marks proves that this was one of the initial issues from the mint. Some later coins have oblique left milling on the edge. 

In 1793, production of this type was split into four mints. The privy mark on this coin indicates that it is a Calcutta issue. Additional dots in the centers of the rosettes circled in black indicated Dacca, Murshidabad and Patna. This coin continues to have oblique left milling on the edge.The East India Company acquired the mint at Saharanpur in 1803 and operated the mint for only a couple of years, before shutting it down in 1805. These coins are quite rare and an aficionado/connoisseurs delight.

Marudhar Arts is hosting an Exclusive Coinage Auction which is now live on its website – (Auction No 24) 

We have a colossal repertoire of Exotic Presidency  Coins in Impeccable condition that are featured on the website and are in our possession. To know more about these cisterns of opulent legacies, please visit our website or call us at 080-65329800.

Wednesday, 1 July 2015

Presidency Coins-Madras Presidency

                                    Marudhar Arts

The permit granted to the East India Company by Venkatdri Naik in 1639 permitted it to "perpetually enjoy the privilege of mintage." This mint was run on contract by various dub ashes - Komati Chetties all - but used gold imported by the Company. In the 1650s, the Company decided it would run the mint itself and appointed English supervisors.

The Madras mint struck coins for in and around the company's territories in for the Northern Circars for nearly 200 years. The initial coins were dump coinage similar to those of the neighboring Hindu territories followed by close imitations of the Mogul coins of the Subah of Arcot.

In 1692, the mint was permitted to mint the silver rupees of the Mughals. A new mint was built in the Fort in 1695, and then rebuilt in 1727 in the northwest corner of the Fort, by what became known as the Mint Bastion. In 1742, a second mint was established in Chintadripet. The same year, the Fort mint was permitted to strike the Arcot rupee and Arcot coins of lower denominations. In 1792, the Chintadripet mint was moved to the Fort and the two mints became the gold and silver mints, minting star pagodas, which were replacing the Madras Pagodas, Arcot rupees and Madras and Arcot fanams and doodoos.

The Company decided to establish two bigger mints at Bombay and Calcutta in 1815. From 1835 - 1867 the mint also struck uniform coinage for circulation. The Madras mint assisted these mints and since its capacity was insignificant, the mint was finally closed down in 1869 to make way for the government press in the same premises. But Mint Street - once Thanga Salai - remains a Madras name.

Early Coins: Dump Coins

The earliest coins of the company in Madras were small silver pieces issued from their factory at Fort St. George in about 1670's. These coins were undated with two interlinked C's on the reverse (assigned to the reign of King Charles II).

During the 18th century silver coins were minted bearing the Company's bale mark (an orb and a cross) inscribed C.C.E (Charter Company of England) and in some cases G.C.E (Governor and company of merchants trading into the East Indies). All these issues were meant for use within the company's factory and surrounding areas and also for exchange with European traders. They were not meant for circulation in the interior of the country.

In 1742 company obtained permission from Nawab Sadatulla Khan of the Subah of Arcot to coin rupees in imitation of those struck at the imperial mint at Arcat. These coins were poorly struck with dies bigger than the blanks used. Hence, only a part of inscriptions are generally visible. They bear the name of Alamgir II with Sixth year of reign and have a 'lotus - mint mark'. This undated series continued for about 50 years. Subsequent issues had Hegira Date '1172' equivalent to 1758 A.D. irrespective of the year of minting. The R.Y-6 also appears on all issues.

Machine Struck Coins

In 1807 new machinery was introduced and mint produced 2 silver coins in European style with oblique milling. One series based on Hindu standard consisted of One and Two pagoda in gold, Half and Quarter pagoda and Fanams in silver. The copper coins consisted on Cash denominations.

The other series based on mogul standard were gold mohurs and fractions of mohurs : ¼, ⅓ and ½ . They issued rupees together with fractions down to ⅛ and 1⁄16 rupee in silver. Madras also issued 2 rupees coins. Although minted in 1807 and later all bear the frozen date "1172"A.H.

Copper coins in this series were (Dub) with inscriptions in Persian on one side and Tamil and Telugu inscriptions on the other side indicating the value in Dub units.

In Madras, there were copper coins for 2, 4 pies, 1, 2 and 4 paisa, with the first two denominated as ½ and 1 dub or 1⁄96 and 1⁄48 rupee. Madras also issued the Madras Fanam until 1815.

Although the two systems of coins were in circulation at the same time but they were unrelated.

3360 Cash = 42 Fanams = 1 Pagoda =31/2 Rupees = 168 (Dub)
1 Rupee = 48 (Dub)
1 (Dub) = 20 Cash

After 1818, Rupee was made the standard coin and the weight was fixed at 180 grains with smaller pieces in proportion. The pagodas and fanams were demonetized from that year.

Next issues were:-

1. 1812-1835: Struck at Madras Mint with 'Lotus' mint mark and indented cord milling.

2. 1823-1825: Struck at Calcutta with 'Rose' mint mark and upright milling.
3. 1830-1835: Struck at Calcutta with 'Rose' mint mark and upright milling but with a small crescent added on the reverse (rupee and half rupee coins) and on obverse (1/4 rupee coins).


The Northern Circars was a former division of Madras Presidency and consisted of present-day Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. Coins for use of Northern Circars division of the Madras Presidency with headquarters at Musalipatnam were:-

SILVER: 4 Annas and 2 Annas
COPPER: 1/48 Rupee and 1/96 Rupee
The last set of coins were a set of 3 copper coins in the denominations of 4 Pai, 2 Pai and 1 Pai issued during the period 1824-1825.

Marudhar Arts is hosting an Exclusive Coinage Auction which is now live on its website – (Auction No 23)

We have a colossal repertoire of Exotic Madras Presidency Coins in Impeccable condition that are featured on the website and are in our possession. To know more about these cisterns of opulent legacies, please visit our website or call us at 080-65329800.

Monday, 29 June 2015

Mughal Coins Of India

                       Marudhar Arts

The period of Mughal rule in India left its indelible mark on not only the arts and culture of the land, but also laid the foundations of an organized postal administration in India which led to the advent of the Indian Coins and Notes. From a parochial system of postal governance, there emerged an expansive system of distinct regional operations controlled by a centralized postal authority. This helped the common Samaritan to gain more cognizance and become aware of the Postal systems in the country which would lead a layman to buy and sell rare stamps of the erstwhile era.

Till early medieval period, postal communications was for exclusive sovereign usage spurred on by a military rationale. Initiated by the landmark postal reforms of Sher Shah Suri, the Mughal regime witnessed a gradual changeover to a communication mechanism merged with administrative restructuring providing a blueprint for rulers who ruled India after the Mughals leading to the arrival of stamps such as British India Stamps etc. Thus it was in the early 16th century, that a systemic synergized two-way communication system began operations on a routine basis. In introspection, the Mughal period spanning two centuries, kick-started the process of an organized postal system in India that was later emulate by the British people who used this as an inspiration for the Stamps of British India were later rolled out.

 Akbar also struck gold mohair’s which had a value of 10 and 12 rupiahs. He brought innovation in his coins He was the first Mogul emperor who issued fractional coins in gold, silver and copper. Silver rupiah coins were struck in three denominations, viz.. 1, 1/2 and 1/4. Of a rupiah. His copper coins in the denomination of 1/2 were known as nasfi. 1/4 as dam and 1/8 part as damn or damdi Akbar also struck heavy copper coins of 632 to 644 grains weight which were known as "Tanka" Inscription on these coins was simple The obverse of the coin carried only two words-"Tanka Akbari" and the reverse showed the llahi year. Fractional tanka coins in 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 denominations were popular.

 Akbar brought about a change in the shape of his coins. He issued gold, silver and copper coins in round, square, rectangular and mihrabi shapes. He was the only Mogul emperor who issued 26 types (varieties) of gold coins. Some popular gold coins to name are—Emperor. Rahas. Atmah. Binsat, Jugul, Lalejalali, Aftabi, llahi, Lale Jalahi. Adalgutka, Maherabi. Muini, Gird, Dhan, Salimi. Man, Samni, Kala. Rabi The Shahenshah gold coin weighed 102 tolas Most of these were commemorative coins His name was struck on Shahrukhi silver coins either with and without titles on the reverse, which read as Jalaluddin Muha.

Marudhar Arts is hosting an Exclusive Coin Auction which is now live on its website – No 23)

Technically, the Mughal period in India commenced in 1526 AD when Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi and ended in 1857 AD when the British deposed and exiled Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal Emperor after the great uprising. The later emperors after Shah Alam II were little more than figureheads.

The most significant monetary contribution of the Mughals was to bring about uniformity and consolidation of the system of coinage throughout the Empire. The system lasted long after the Mughal Empire was effectively no more. The system of tri-metalism which came to characterize Mughal coinage was largely the creation, not of the Mughals but of Sher Shah Suri (1540 to 1545 AD), an Afghan, who ruled for a brief time in Delhi. Sher Shah issued a coin of silver which was termed the Rupiah. This weighed 178 grains and was the precursor of the modern rupee. It remained largely unchanged till the early 20th Century. Together with the silver Rupiah were issued gold coins called the Mohair weighing 169 grains and copper coins called Dam.

Where coin designs and minting techniques were concerned, Mughal Coinage reflected originality and innovative skills. Mughal coin designs came to maturity during the reign of the Grand Mughal, Akbar. Innovations like ornamentation of the background of the die with floral scrollwork were introduced. Jehangir took a personal interest in his coinage. The surviving gigantic coins are amongst the largest issued in the world. The Zodiacal signs, portraits and literary verses and the excellent calligraphy that came to characterize his coins took Mogul coinage to new heights.

Akbar was one of the most prominent and prudent monarchs of the erstwhile Mogul epoch. He struck silver Shahrukhi copper coins similar to those issued by his predecessors. He also continued Sher Shah's silver rupiah coins. His gold coins weighing 11 mashas (about 170 grains) were known as "mohair". Silver Shahrukhis of 72 grains weight and silver rupiahs 198 grains in weight had a great circulation. His copper coins of 330 grains weight were known as "dam". 40 dams were equal to 1 silver rupiah and 9 rupiahs were equivalent to 1 mohair in value.

We have a vast repertoire of exotic and rare ancient coins that are featured on the website and are in our possession. To know more about these cisterns of opulent legacies, please visit our website or call us at 080-65329800

Thursday, 25 June 2015

Historical & Commemorative Medal

Marudhar Arts
           Marudhar Arts

Welcome to describing the collection of Historical and Commemorative Medals.  We have been collecting medals for more than forty years now, where my father,Mr Prem Ratan Maru, introduced me to this interesting field. For this I am greatly indebted and gratified to him.

My choice of pieces to collect was governed by what I considered to be their artistic value and secondarily, but importantly, by their historical significance.  Accordingly, you will find in this collection  medals from a number of countries and several artistic and historic periods, ranging from the 16th through the 19th centuries.  This diversity  made decisions concerning the organization and presentation of the medals particularly difficult. 

For I wished to present the collection both from an artistic perspective, where the pieces would be listed by artistic style and medallist, and from an historical prospective, where medals of similar topics or historical events would be shown together.  This proved to be an impossible task.  Therefore, We as a numismatic conglomerate decided on  not totally satisfying the compromise of  presenting the collection by the country in which the medallist primarily worked, rather than by  the medal's topic, with subcategories arranged in as chronological an order as feasible, either by medallist or by historical event. 

For each country or medallist there are thumbnails showing the medals in the collection.  From this site high resolution images and a brief description of the medals may be reached.  I have also included a short biographical sketch of the medallists of each country.  The  object of the descriptions was to try, insofar as I was able,  to put the medal into an historical context.  To expand on the historical context of the medal, to relevant  web sites have been provided. 

 In many cases, these  historical commentaries are still incomplete and should be considered as 'a work in progress'.  In some cases I have also included paintings and other works of art relevant to the medal entries by way of LINKS to web sites devoted to art, including those of some of the great art museums.  This was an attempt  not only to increase the interest of the site but also to put the Art of the Medal into the general context of Art.

The descriptions and explanations of the medals have been taken from standard reference sources and from information found in texts and various discourses and catalogues on medals cited in the BIBLIOGRAPHY.  I have also borrowed heavily from other web sites,  particularly from an excellent compendium on World History by renowned connoisseurs and authors on the subject matter.  To the authors of these works I am deeply indebted.

The biographical sketches cited for the medallists in this web site were excerpted largely from Forrer's comprehensive Biographical Dictionary of Medallists. The descriptions and interpretations of the reverses of the medals that relate to English history were taken in large measure from Edward Hawkins' classic two volume book, Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland to the Death of George II, often verbatim, and from Medallic History of England printed by Wilson and Co. in 1802.

I am gratefully indebted to Krause Publications along with whom the South Asian Coinage Books was published in the year 2013 in which a detailed elucidation on different types of medallions and commemorative tokens of appreciation has been discussed in elaboration.

Marudhar Arts is hosting an Exclusive Coin Auction which is now live on its website –

We have a vast repertoire of exotic and rare ancient commemorative medallions that are featured on the website and are in our possession. To know more about these cisterns of opulent legacies, please visit our website or call us at 080-65329800.

Error Coins – A Valuable Guide

                 Marudhar Arts

We have a colossalrepertoire of Error coins in Impeccable condition that are featured on thewebsite and are in our possession. To know more about these cisterns of opulentlegacies, please visit our website or call us at080-65329800.

Coins Of European Colonies

                              Marudhar Arts

 INTRODUCTION the beginning of time, European merchants have made change in cents clad in copper-plated steel or an alloy called Nordic gold, as well as in Euros, which are shiny, bimetal coins. But it wasn’t too long ago that travelers visiting the continent would return home with their pockets filled with loose change of seemingly countless sizes and denominations.


One can still experience that with a visit to Great Britain, where pence and pounds still change hands, even though the island nation is a member of the European Union. Historically, British subjects have paid for items with everything from tiny farthings to larger guineas and crowns. Coins from the Early Victorian/Georgian Times to the present commemorative coins are renowned because of the fame the British Empire has garnered and the opulence of its history.

The history of German coinage is no less rich. Collected coins include those minted by the German states prior to and immediately following the unification of the states into an empire in 1871; coins circulated between World Wars I and II; and the separate monetary systems that were established after 1949, when Germany was divided into eastern and western nations.


France’s modern-day decimal monetary system dates 1795, shortly after the French Revolution. Some gold francs of the early 1800s featured the bust of Napoleon, who ruled for a decade until 1814.


One of the world’s most storied coins is the Spanish real, which was Spain’s denomination at the height of the nation’s dominance as a world power in the 16th century. In fact, real’s were so widespread and prevalent in the New World that they were one of the most common forms of currency in the U.S colonies, and were traded as legal tender throughout the new nation in the early years of the United States.

The first coin to be called a Swiss franc was a silver, 10-batzen coin minted by the Bern Canton (state) in 1757. By the middle of the 19th century, some 860 varieties of coins were circulating in Switzerland, minted by Swiss Cantons, cities, and religious organizations, although the majority of the coins used for goods and services in the landlocked nation were foreign.

Of course, the history of coinage in the West all but began in Italy, where ancient Roman coins were struck beginning in roughly the year 500 BCE. By the middle Ages, the florin, named for its origins in the Republic of Florence, became an important trading coin throughout Europe.

Meanwhile, the Papal States circulated the scudo, which was worth 100 baiocchi. In 1871 the states became a part of Italy, but the scudo had been scuttled in 1866, replaced by the Italian lira (equal to 100 centesimi).
Marudhar Arts is hosting an Exclusive Coinage Auction which is now live on its website – No 23)
We have a colossal repertoire of Exotic European Colony Coins in Impeccable condition that are featured on the website and are in our possession. To know more about these cisterns of opulent legacies, please visit our website or call us at 080-65329800.

British India Bank Notes

                     Marudhar Arts
British India Issues commence with the Paper Currency Act of 1861 which gave the Government the monopoly of note issue in India. The management of paper currency across the geographical expanse of the Indian sub-continent was a task of considerable proportions. Initially the Presidency Banks were appointed as agents to promote the circulation of these notes in view of their existing infrastructure. The Act of 1861 authorized the Presidency Banks to enter into agreements with the Secretary of State for becoming agents for the issue, payment and exchange of promissory notes of the Government of India. The problem of redemption of these notes over vast expanses of the Indian sub-continent led to the concept of 'Currency Circles', where these notes were legal tender.
These Currency Circles increased in number as the Government progressively took over the work. The agency agreements with the Presidency Banks were finally terminated in 1867. The Management of Paper Currency was subsequently, in turn, entrusted to the Mint Masters, the Accountant Generals and the Controller of Currency.
Victoria Portrait Series-First Series of Notes

The first set of British India notes were the 'Victoria Portrait' Series issued in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100, and 1000. These were unifaced, carried two language panels and were printed on hand-molded paper manufactured at the Laverstock Paper Mills (Portals). The security features incorporated the watermark (GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, RUPEES, two signatures and wavy lines), the printed signature and the registration of the notes.


The Victoria Portrait series was withdrawn in the wake of a spate of forgeries and replaced by the unifaced 'Under print Series' which were introduced in 1867. In deference to public demand, notes in the denomination of Rupees Five were introduced. Initially, notes were legally encashable only in the Currency Circle in which they were issued; however, between 1903 an 1911, notes of denomination 5, 10, 50 and 100 were 'universalized', i.e. were legally encashable outside the Currency Circle of Issue.

The Underprint Series notes were printed on moulded paper and carried 4 language panels (Green Series). The languages differed as per the currency circle of Issue. Language panels were increased to 8 in the Red Series. The improved security features included a wavy line watermark, the manufacturer's code in the watermark (the source of much confusion in dating), guilloche patterns and a colored under print.
This series remained largely unchanged till the introduction of the 'King's Portrait' series which commenced in 1923.

King's Portrait Series

Regular issues of this Series carrying the portrait of George V were introduced in May, 1923 on a Ten Rupee Note. The King's Portrait Motif continued as an integral feature of all Paper Money issues of British India. Government of India continued to issue currency notes till 1935 when the Reserve Bank of India took over the functions of the Controller of Currency. These notes were issued in denominations of Rs 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 10,000.
With the establishment of the Currency Note Press at Nasik in 1928, currency notes came to be progressively printed in India. By 1932 the Nasik Press was printing the entire spectrum of India currency notes. The improved security features were changed watermarks, intricate portrait designs and multicolored printing.

The first Central Office of the Reserve Bank of India

It began operations by taking over from the Government the functions hitherto performed by the Controller of Currency and from the Imperial Bank the management of Government Accounts and Public Debt. The existing Currency Offices in Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Rangoon, Karachi, Lahore and Cawnpore became the branches of the Issue Department of the Bank. (It was not then considered necessary to have an office in Delhi.).
Section 22 of the RBI Act, 1934, empowered it to continue issuing Government of India notes till its own notes were ready for issue. The Central Board of the Bank recommended that the Bank notes retain the general size, appearance and design of the existing notes, albeit with modifications.
Notes with the portrait of Edward VIII were scheduled for release in the summer of '37. But Edward's heart had its reasons and his abdication, at levels mundane, delayed the Bank's issues to January 1938 when the first Five Rupee note was issued bearing the portrait of George VI.

The first Governor, Sir Osborne Smith did not sign any bank notes; the first Reserve Bank issues were signed by the second Governor, Sir James Taylor.

In August 1940, the one-rupee note was reintroduced, once again as a war time measure, as a Government note with the status of a rupee coin, in terms of the Currency Ordinance of 1940 (IV of 1940). The issuance of Rs 2 and 8 Anna’s was contemplated but Rs 2 was introduced instead on 3rd March, 1943.
The George VI series continued till 1947 and thereafter as a frozen series till 1950 when post independence notes were issued.
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