Monday, 29 June 2015

Mughal Coins Of India

                       Marudhar Arts

The period of Mughal rule in India left its indelible mark on not only the arts and culture of the land, but also laid the foundations of an organized postal administration in India which led to the advent of the Indian Coins and Notes. From a parochial system of postal governance, there emerged an expansive system of distinct regional operations controlled by a centralized postal authority. This helped the common Samaritan to gain more cognizance and become aware of the Postal systems in the country which would lead a layman to buy and sell rare stamps of the erstwhile era.

Till early medieval period, postal communications was for exclusive sovereign usage spurred on by a military rationale. Initiated by the landmark postal reforms of Sher Shah Suri, the Mughal regime witnessed a gradual changeover to a communication mechanism merged with administrative restructuring providing a blueprint for rulers who ruled India after the Mughals leading to the arrival of stamps such as British India Stamps etc. Thus it was in the early 16th century, that a systemic synergized two-way communication system began operations on a routine basis. In introspection, the Mughal period spanning two centuries, kick-started the process of an organized postal system in India that was later emulate by the British people who used this as an inspiration for the Stamps of British India were later rolled out.

 Akbar also struck gold mohair’s which had a value of 10 and 12 rupiahs. He brought innovation in his coins He was the first Mogul emperor who issued fractional coins in gold, silver and copper. Silver rupiah coins were struck in three denominations, viz.. 1, 1/2 and 1/4. Of a rupiah. His copper coins in the denomination of 1/2 were known as nasfi. 1/4 as dam and 1/8 part as damn or damdi Akbar also struck heavy copper coins of 632 to 644 grains weight which were known as "Tanka" Inscription on these coins was simple The obverse of the coin carried only two words-"Tanka Akbari" and the reverse showed the llahi year. Fractional tanka coins in 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 denominations were popular.

 Akbar brought about a change in the shape of his coins. He issued gold, silver and copper coins in round, square, rectangular and mihrabi shapes. He was the only Mogul emperor who issued 26 types (varieties) of gold coins. Some popular gold coins to name are—Emperor. Rahas. Atmah. Binsat, Jugul, Lalejalali, Aftabi, llahi, Lale Jalahi. Adalgutka, Maherabi. Muini, Gird, Dhan, Salimi. Man, Samni, Kala. Rabi The Shahenshah gold coin weighed 102 tolas Most of these were commemorative coins His name was struck on Shahrukhi silver coins either with and without titles on the reverse, which read as Jalaluddin Muha.

Marudhar Arts is hosting an Exclusive Coin Auction which is now live on its website – www.marudhararts.com(Auction No 23)


Technically, the Mughal period in India commenced in 1526 AD when Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi and ended in 1857 AD when the British deposed and exiled Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal Emperor after the great uprising. The later emperors after Shah Alam II were little more than figureheads.

The most significant monetary contribution of the Mughals was to bring about uniformity and consolidation of the system of coinage throughout the Empire. The system lasted long after the Mughal Empire was effectively no more. The system of tri-metalism which came to characterize Mughal coinage was largely the creation, not of the Mughals but of Sher Shah Suri (1540 to 1545 AD), an Afghan, who ruled for a brief time in Delhi. Sher Shah issued a coin of silver which was termed the Rupiah. This weighed 178 grains and was the precursor of the modern rupee. It remained largely unchanged till the early 20th Century. Together with the silver Rupiah were issued gold coins called the Mohair weighing 169 grains and copper coins called Dam.

Where coin designs and minting techniques were concerned, Mughal Coinage reflected originality and innovative skills. Mughal coin designs came to maturity during the reign of the Grand Mughal, Akbar. Innovations like ornamentation of the background of the die with floral scrollwork were introduced. Jehangir took a personal interest in his coinage. The surviving gigantic coins are amongst the largest issued in the world. The Zodiacal signs, portraits and literary verses and the excellent calligraphy that came to characterize his coins took Mogul coinage to new heights.

Akbar was one of the most prominent and prudent monarchs of the erstwhile Mogul epoch. He struck silver Shahrukhi copper coins similar to those issued by his predecessors. He also continued Sher Shah's silver rupiah coins. His gold coins weighing 11 mashas (about 170 grains) were known as "mohair". Silver Shahrukhis of 72 grains weight and silver rupiahs 198 grains in weight had a great circulation. His copper coins of 330 grains weight were known as "dam". 40 dams were equal to 1 silver rupiah and 9 rupiahs were equivalent to 1 mohair in value.

We have a vast repertoire of exotic and rare ancient coins that are featured on the website and are in our possession. To know more about these cisterns of opulent legacies, please visit our website www.marudhararts.com or call us at 080-65329800